How do I choose between Apple or Android?
If you are heavily into iTunes and other Apple things maybe consider iPhone. Else I think try Android. Once nice thing about Android is most apps are free (often ad supported) or have free versions and a low cost version without ads. This allows you to try out lots of apps while finding the ones you like best, mostly for free.
When I first got my Android phone, I installed Ublock Origin in the OS and also in my browser. I never get any adverts from Google nor anyone else.
I've never had an Apple phone nor a high end Android phone. I bought a Plum phone running Jellybean, an OS several years old now. The touch screen has an erratic response, the ringer turns itself on or off at will, and the advertising is remorseless. Google Play Store has a lot of software to offer, but some of it is garbage. It's possible to tighten your security in various ways; you can for example use a VPN for internet browsing. Also, you're under no legal obligation to give Google real information for an email account. I use my google account to link to my smart TV. That google account is useful and convenient. Consumer Cellular charges me $30 p/m for extensive service, and they sell phones for a down payment plus monthly payments.
Apple has more restrictions upon its iOS than Google's Android, even I am not aware of it myself. You probably can't even pick it up just by fondling those phones in stores. So much so iPhone might even have felt flat on its face had it released late. Your concern on Android is just as much applicable to Apple and they are nothing compare to the carriers having to record whatever it has to record, but who says you have to put down your own Google Account or Apple Account? Researching those two a bit more, I find Android is far superior to iOS on usability and shockingly even rooting versus jailbreaking (as in what features lack thereof without doing that).
I've got a MS phone that I love. A Lumia 640. I don't like 'droid and I won't spend 800-1k for a IOS.
Apples are tastier, especially when cooked in pies.
Google Pixel 3
Android. There are a few things one can do on apple that they can not on android. But there are hundreds of things one can do on android that they can not on apple. What will you miss most? A few things- or a lot of things.
Your windows phone is really an ANDROID, IOS is only available on Apple phones.
Sounds like you should lean to Apple. Your feelings about Google's practices aren't going to go away regardless of the phone. You have to keep in mind about the various tiers of phones. Low, mid & high. That phone you have now is a mid-tier phone vs iPhones which (for the most part) have been high end. Only the 5c from a couple of years back was considered mid-tier from start. Also the carriers subsidised the cost of the phone, making it even cheaper. I see it costs less than $150 now, unlocked (which is the most expensive option when buying a phone). iPhones usually have high resale value which is why you'd likely not find one in that low of a price range unless it is a fairly old model. You should be able to get the cheapest available iPhone, the 7 for a decent price, but I doubt, even with the carrier involved, it would be near $150.
Yes, see how you feel. Choose with your heart.