Were the first American fandom/comic/geek conventions segregated?

I ve been doing research on black cosplayers for black history month and, despite my best efforts, I ve been unable to find any documentation on con spaces and if segregational rules applied to these already niche spaces. I assume yes, of course, due to the Jim Crow laws being implemented long before the first cons had come to pass but it s better to be certain. If you have any information on the topic, be it articles, documents, etc., I would LOVE the assistance!


Comic book conventions in Atlanta Ga. started in the 1970s. The participants were mainly of European decent. There was no discrimination. The con spaces were first come, first served. Back then, people that went to conventions liked comics, and wanted to share with others who liked comics. I know because I was a member of the comic book club that sponsored the first comic book convention in Atlanta. I didn't attend the ones in California, so I can't comment about them.