What part of the brain or which gland is responsible for the feeling hunger? And what would happen if it was damaged?
The major CNS pathways responsible for feeling hunger are in the hypothalamus. Two major pathways, one serving hunger (AGRP/NPY), and the other serving satiety.(POMC/CART)--both sets located in the arcuate nucleus; they're in turn connected with effector nuclei in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Each also inhibits activity of the other. They receive input from higher brain centers, as well as both neural and hormonal signals from the GI tract and liver. Numerous studies have been done, going back to the 1950s, showing that hunger & satiety can be affected by lesions to specific regions of the hypothalamus, and so it's been known for over 60 years that the hypothalamus is important. Since then more fine-grained analysis narrowed down the specific pathways to the ones outlined in the previous paragraph.
Dixon: Short answer
Short answer: it's quite complex. Short-term regulation of hunger and food intake involves neural signals from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), blood levels of nutrients, GI tract hormones, and psychological factors. Neural signals from the GI tract One method that the brain uses to evaluate the contents of the gut is through vagal nerve fibers that carry signals between the brain and the GI tract. Stretch receptors work to inhibit appetite upon distention of the GI tract by sending signals along the vagus nerve afferent pathway and inhibiting the hunger center. Nutrient signals Blood levels of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids provide a constant flow of information to the brain that may be linked to regulating hunger and energy intake. Nutrient signals that indicate fullness, and therefore inhibit hunger include rising blood glucose levels, elevated blood levels of amino acids, and blood concentrations of fatty acids. Hormone signals The hormones insulin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are released from the GI tract during food absorption and act to suppress feeling of hunger. CCK is key in suppressing hunger because of its role in inhibiting neuropeptide Y. Glucagon and epinephrine levels rise during fasting and stimulate hunger. Ghrelin, a hormone produced by the stomach, is a hunger stimulant.
Oddly enough sugar damages this area And causes you to over eat or crave more Sugar. Your body only sends a eat something Message when it's low on a food item: protein, Fruit, vegetables, nuts, water, fat, etc so you Must think what have I not eaten lately That my body needs more of. Each food Contains important nutrients. Bananas have Potassium and vitamins that help prevent Dehydration. Your muscles need protein A few times a week. Read prevention magazine To learn what beneficial foods you should Have during a week. Good luck