What would the climate of the earth be like if the earth were 9.5 times the distance from the sun(like the position of the Saturn)?
Too cold for life.
We'd be very similar to the 'ice moons' we see - Europa around Jupiter, or Enceladus, orbiting Saturn. While the 'seasons' would still exist, the temperature would be far too cold in both summer and winter to matter.
The difference in temperature would be negligible. Everything on the surface of the planet would be frozen. As for the atmosphere it would depend on the Freezing Point of the gases.
there would be a temperature difference but the difference would be a lot smaller. The difference in amount of incoming energy would be a lot smaller, and that difference is what causes the temperature gradient. If the input is small, the effect is small.
"9.5 times the distance from the sun" ? do you mean "9.5 times the current distance from the sun" The climate would obviously colder. The oceans would be frozen. Most life would be gone. Since amount of solar radiation falls off as the square of the distance, the amount of sunlight would be 1/90 th of the current amount. A simple proportion, probably not correct, sets the average temperature at about –80ºF. Probably CO₂ would freeze out. Temperature diff? yes. Poles would be colder than equator.