Which semi-auto 22 can fire shorts, long and long rifles interchangeably?
The old Winchester model 74 was a tubular magazine .22 rimfire that had an adjustable spring tension knob on the rear of the receiver to enable the rifle to handle shorts, longs, and long rifle. I have no idea how well it worked. With a semiautomatic weapon such as .22, there has to be enough back thrust from the fired shell to operate the action, otherwise it could jam. The Winchester 63 could only shoot .22 High Speed LR, instead of standard velocity.This is determined by powder charge. These days, all .22 semiautomatics are designed to chamber .22 LR Only a manually operated action will cycle all three cartridges reliably
model 550 remington
Savage made some that you could push the bolt handle in and make it single shot. They were also sold by Montgomery Wards as Western Field. They would only shoot other than LR in single shot without jamming. All other .22LR semi rifles will jam with anything other than LRs.
Most semi-autos that fire the 22 use a straight blow back action. That means there is a spring that has to be overcome solely by the base being blown back when the gun fires. A weak spring is needed for the shorts, a much tougher spring is needed for the long rifles. So yes, there is a gun that can do it but it requires a change in the spring when you change the ammo. Plus why would you want to do it? The 22 LR is easy to find and relatively cheap.
Most .22 rifles can shoot all three but manufacturers stamp it on the barrel what it will shoot.
Any of them if you are willing to fire it single shot and manually load the ones that are too weak to cycle the action or are too short to feed properly. I'd suggest a lever action if it is important to be able to fire any and all .22 non-magnum ammo. Most of them will handle it all.
“22” Rifles are very dangerous.
most riffles can