What programming languages support 3d in pure without libraries or engines?
None - or all, depending how you look at it. You can write your own routines to plot or ray trace 3D images and output directly to screen pixels - but without hardware acceleration the performance is going to be abysmal. All high-performance 3D graphics systems rely on hardware accelerated displays - GPUs - and you need the appropriate library routines and interface language, such as OpenGL or Vulkan, to work with those.
Languages aren't generally concerned with rendering any kind of graphics, except that they provide the basic APIs for interacting with graphics hardware. Video APIs (libraries) are responsible for rendering graphics. MS has DirectX and the native drawing API. Apple has their own drawing API and their own gaming API. Same for every platform. Java is one language you might find interesting since, as far as I'm aware, contains most of the basics for 3D rendering for every platform it can run on. Beyond that, just pick a language and a gaming engine and you're good to go. There's no reason to be so lazy as to want any language to do everything for you.
No general purpose language supports 3d out of the box, but you could write you own 3D code in any language you want.