What's going on with our aquarium?
The worms will go away, dont panic and over clean!, But when you do do a water change, suck up what you can with the gravel vacuum. Like Annonamos said, dont overfeed, then the snails and worms and other issues will stop. NEVER buy an animal just for it to do a job, snails may make tunnels in the algae , "which buy the way, is a harmless plant", but algae will come out the other end of the snail in the form of gross poo, which is fertilizer for algae. Little glob like things are egg sacks full of baby snails, they will hatch and lay more eggs if you dont scrape them away. Nerite snails lay little sesame seed looking eggs that are hard to remove, but never hatch in fresh water. Loaches should be in a shoal of 5 or more per species, they are very social! Almost all species of loaches will devour almost any species of snail large or small. Nerite snails may survive the loaches, but I doubt that the shrimp will. SO, - dont panic, dont over feed, get more loaches, use your gravel vac!
Don't do anything drastic Organisms will grow in new tanks, and overfed tanks. It's totally normal. Do not overreact, do not overclean the tank or filter. Stop overfeeding the tank. Food that is not eaten in seconds is overfeeding. The instructions on the food packaging is usually complete nonsense. Once you stop overfeeding all these problems will go away. Watch youtube videos about how to gravel siphon clean an aquarium. Do small water changes with a gravel vacuum every few weeks until conditions improve
Those globs are probably snail eggs but one thing that puzzles me is why the fish don't dine on some of these things. Some fish like it boggy but over all it sounds like you need to get rif othese (apparently) unappetizing items and give the tank a complete cleaning. Have your water overnight to decholorinate, take out and wash plants, thorughly clean the gravel and scrub the tank out with wet salt, then rinse well of course. You will set it up and put the fish back in and it will be general hospital, after the medieval bog. Snails usually multiply despite being single and I always liked the big black mystery snails.
The little hard white things are the eggs that the snail has laid. They can be messy. If your snail is a Nerite Snail, then that will eat the algae. Any other type of snail, you not have. Bad news for aquariums. I don't know about the reddish/brownish bugs. Ask the place that sold you the snail, or the fish.