For engineering and science majors, does what college you get your degree affect your salary or increase your chances of getting a job?
Not much. STEM majors are very much in demand, from any accredited college.
Of course. Employers recruit the best grads of the best schools. They are not interested in those who "barely squeaked through" or those with a degree from a low-ranked school. There are enough engineering & science majors that employers do their best to choose the best.
To a certain extent, yes it does, but your salary is also somewhat location dependent. The cost of living is also very location dependent. Businesses now work with vo-tech schools, community colleges, schools, colleges and universities to recruit and offer internships. Many bachelors and masters degree programs now REQUIRE one or more internships. The federal goverment agencies offer internships. The catch is not all internships end with job offers. Big Business has become Big Brother, not the goverment.
No. Go to the school that will result in the least amount of debt.
Sure it does. Every hiring manager has their own opinion and "ranking" of different universities. If a school is well-known for their Engineering or CS program or is considered an elite university, it is certainly possible that employers will prefer and pay more for students from those schools.
As long as one graduates from a decent/adequate university, finding a job in engineering or computer science won't be difficult -- provided one actually put in the leg work to learn the requisite skills and had at least one successful internship. Why? Just look at the data from most any university's office of institutional research. The attrition rate in STEM is atrocious. A program that start with something like 300 declared majors often graduates less than 30 students annually. Most of the rest end up changing majors. So it's basic supply and demand.
Put it this way. Would you rather someone with a degree from Harvard or someone who went to East Jipip Normal College?