Would red beans, rice & chicken go bad if I left it outside in 40 degree weather overnight? Would it still be safe to eat?
40*F is the upper end of fridge temperatures. If you are very certain it's not going to be warmer than that, you might be okay, just microwave it very well before eating, don't eat it cold. Place it in the coolest spot you can overnight for storage. If you do this, be careful. If it doesn't seem right after microwaving, dispose of it. better safe than sorry.
it should be okay if the food was in under 40 degree temps but if you had the food in your shelter, that was probably much warmer than that inside a tent or enclosure as your body gives off body heat. Nuke the hell out of it and it should be fine.
Refrigerators keep things at 40F.
It should be fine as long as it does not attract bugs, or dangerous animals.
Yes, it would go bad.