Could we grow plants on any other planets in our solar system (including Pluto)?
Sure, but only inside buildings. They could not survive on the planet's surface. We would have to provide soil, water, CO2, warmth, and light. The sun on planets further than Mars us too dim.
Farther from the sun, light gets dimmer by the square of the distance. Mars is 40% farther on average, so its light is only (1.44)^2 or 2 times weaker than on Earth. Farther still, weaker still. Out by Jupiter, ten times weaker. Plants would not get enough light to grow well at all.
No, not without organic content. Have ever really LOOKED at a soil profile. That is why it is called "soil," not dirt or regolith.
No. Plants require a good soil and Water and the right atmosphere and the right Temperatures.
Mars might be possible. Just need a water source and plants that can survive in really cold temperature.
Our scientific methods are not good enough for us to maintain greenhouses on other planets as of today.